North America



Mineral Requirements to Be Reevaluated at Midwest Swine Nutrition Conference

[INDIANAPOLIS] – Is there a shift coming in pig mineral nutrition? According to one swine nutrition expert, change is inevitable – and overdue.

“Trace minerals are often supplemented into swine diets at levels above recommendations in the belief that this will enhance productive performance,” said Dr. Don Mahan, professor emeritus at Ohio State University. “This method can negatively affect not only the animals, but also the consumer and environment, as a greater level of trace mineral supplementation into diets can result in the additional excretion of minerals and more mineral waste flowing into the environment.”

The National Research Council (NRC) routinely publishes a review of the nutritional requirements for swine based on the available scientific literature; however, Mahan said that the relevance of most of the published literature is questionable, particularly in the mineral area.

Mahan will present some of his recent studies on addressing proper mineral nutrition at the Midwest Swine Nutrition Conference in Indianapolis, Indiana on Sept. 4. The paper, “A New Approach in Determining the Micro Mineral Needs of the Growing Pig,” highlights how the current NRC recommendations for micromineral supplementation are well above the pig’s requirement. One conclusion from his studies is that when mineral levels at or above 50 percent of the NRC (1998, 2012) requirements were fed, there was no effect on pig performance.

Mahan’s paper also indicates that organic trace mineral digestibility values averaged 20 percent greater than the digestibility of inorganic trace minerals. Mahan said that it is important to not only look at the mineral levels that are being fed to pigs, but also the source of the minerals. Organic trace minerals offer a form of supplementation that can be more naturally absorbed, stored and utilized by the animal.

Though there has been limited new research carried out in the area of trace mineral nutrition recommendations, Alltech has remained steadfast in the investigation of the nutritional benefits and appropriate levels of organic trace minerals for animals and their effects on the consumer and environment. To that end, Alltech has partnered with scientific experts, such as Mahan, in the investigation of trace mineral technology.

“As an industry, our focus, now more than ever, needs to be on efficiency. With proven methods for attaining improved productivity with less input, we need to further examine utilizing these technologies,” said Dr. Ryan Samuel, research project manager at Alltech. “In fact, current recommendations for mineral nutrition may be adding to the inefficiency and waste coming from our pigs’ diets.”

Alltech is proud to once again be a sponsor of the Midwest Swine Nutrition Conference held annually since 2000.

Kansas State University Student Receives 2014 Forrest Bassford Award

Ann Hess, North America field PR manager for Alltech, presents the Livestock Production Council Forrest Bassford Student Award to the 2014 winner Logan Britton, Kansas State University, at the Ag Media Summit.

[FORT WORTH] – Logan Britton, a senior majoring in agricultural communications and agriculture economics at Kansas State University (KSU), is the recipient of the 2014 Livestock Publications Council (LPC) Forrest Bassford Student Award sponsored by Alltech. Britton was presented a $2,000 scholarship and a plaque during the Ag Media Summit (AMS) held in Indianapolis, Indiana, July 26-30.

Britton, the son of Tara and Henry Britton from Bartlett, Kansas, is an active member of Agricultural Communicators of Tomorrow (ACT), Student National Agri-Marketing Association and the Alpha Gamma Rho Fraternity. He is a KSU College of Agriculture ambassador. Britton also serves on the KSU College of Agriculture student council as a student senator. He is a member of LPC, the American Agricultural Editor’s Association (AAEA) and National FFA Alumni Association.

In addition to his involvement in collegiate clubs and national organizations, Britton serves as the office manager for the KSU College of Agriculture academic programs and a teaching assistant in the department of communications and agricultural education. This summer, he is participating in an internship sponsored by AAEA with the National FFA organization. 

“I didn’t grow up living on a farm or showing livestock. Realizing how important agriculture is, I want to bridge the gap that exists between the field and the plate today,” said Britton. “I owe several people for opportunities provided to me and my growth – I’m truly honored to receive this award.”

The Forrest Bassford award honors excellence, professionalism and leadership among students. Each year, following a competitive application process, the LPC Student Award Program presents four young people travel scholarships to attend AMS. In addition to Britton, this year's travel award winners were Breanne Brammer, University of Missouri; Courtney Leeper, University of Missouri and Lynsey Meharg, Texas Tech University. While at the meeting, the four finalists’ portfolios were reviewed and each was interviewed by a panel of professionals.

2014 marks the 29th year for the Student Award Program. Forrest Bassford's name was appended to the LPC Student Award in 1992 in honor of his contribution to LPC, and his particular interest in furthering the Student Award. Alltech has co-sponsored the award since 2012.

“Today’s young agricultural journalists must not only be excellent communicators, but also able to successfully multitask between various social and traditional media channels. They must be ‘agvocates’ and educate a growing urban population about our industry. Finally they must be catalysts for change as they share new technologies developed and polices passed with their readers,” said Ann Hess, North America field PR manager for Alltech. “We are pleased to present this award to a fine young leader in agricultural journalism and wish Logan the best in his future aspirations.”

Be Wary of Wheat Quality after Wet Weather

According to Dr. Max Hawkins, a nutritionist with Alltech’s Mycotoxin Management Team, there have been recent reports of wheat being rejected at grain terminals for DON levels ranging from five ppm to more than 10 ppm.

[LEXINGTON, Ky.] – This summer’s excessive rain has left the wheat harvest lagging behind and the crop in suboptimal condition, according to one grain management expert.

Dr. Max Hawkins, a nutritionist with Alltech’s Mycotoxin Management Team, said that the most common mycotoxin issue with wheat is Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by Fusarium graminareum mold. This is the same mold that produces Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), and the two are commonly associated in wheat. However, in some cases DON can still be present even if FHB is not spotted.

Fusarium graminareum prefers extended wet periods or relative humidity more than 90 percent with temperatures from 59 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit. The maps for June rainfall and temperature indicate these factors have been in play across a major portion of the Grain Belt.

“In the 2014 wheat crop, there are reports from across the U.S. of DON levels ranging from two parts per million (ppm) to 14 ppm. There are areas where the wheat has been relatively free of DON and bushel test weights have been excellent,” Hawkins said. “However, the areas contaminated with DON are increasing as rainfall and temperature play a more significant role. There have been recent reports of wheat being rejected at grain terminals for DON levels ranging from five ppm to more than 10 ppm.”

A standard alternative to corn in poultry and swine diets, wheat can be formulated into a diet on a lysine basis and provide similar nutritional value. Wheat can also be utilized to stretch a short corn supply or at certain times be a more economic replacement for corn. However, just as in corn, there can be a risk for mycotoxins.

“Wheat producers may have used fungicide to help prevent FHB but this requires proper timing and application rates to be more effective,” Hawkins said. “If there is variability in plant maturity across a field at application, this will result in fungicide being improperly timed for a percentage of the wheat crop. This will result in a percentage of the plants not being protected against FHB and at risk for DON formation.”

Since DON tends to be higher on light weight, damaged kernels or fines, Hawkins advises these tips for wheat growers:

  • Be proactive by increasing fan speed on combines to 1375 to 1475 rpm and increasing shutter openings to 3.5 inches.
  • When storing grain, it should be screened as it goes into storage and screened again when it is removed from storage.
  • Screening should not be used for livestock feed.
  • If the wheat grain contains DON, the straw from the crop will contain DON also so care must be used if the straw is destined for feeding or bedding.

“It is highly recommended to have the grain analyzed prior to feeding. Alltech’s 37+TM laboratory provides an in-depth analysis of 38 different mycotoxins and not only analyzes for DON but also for six different Type B Trichothecenes that can be formed by Fusarium graminareum,” Hawkins said. “The employment of a total mycotoxin management program that covers all areas from the field to the feeder will provide the greatest amount of information and the safest feed possible.”

PSA: Alltech Honors Auburn University Student, Showcases Latest Research

LEXINGTON, Ky.] – Kate Meloche, an Auburn University doctoral student, took home the Alltech Student Research Manuscript Award at the recent 2014 Poultry Science Association (PSA) meeting in Corpus Christi, Texas.

A native of Edina, Minnesota, Meloche received her bachelor of science in animal science with a minor in human nutrition from the University of Minnesota in 2011. During her undergraduate studies, Meloche worked as a research technician in the turkey nutrition research laboratory at the University of Minnesota and completed two consecutive summer course programs held by the Midwest Poultry Consortium Center of Excellence at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. After completing her undergraduate degree, she participated in a live production internship program with GNP Company in St. Cloud, Minnesota.

Meloche completed her master’s degree at Auburn University under the advisement of William A. Dozier, III. The focus of her work was the development and validation of prediction equations for the apparent metabolizable energy of distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks. Currently, Meloche is pursuing a doctorate at Auburn under the continued guidance of Dozier, where she is investigating the effect of nutrition and management strategies on the development of breast meat quality defects in broiler chickens.

The Alltech Student Research Manuscript Award is presented each year at the PSA conference and is bestowed upon a student for his or her presentation and publication as senior author of an outstanding research manuscript in Poultry Science or The Journal of Applied Poultry Research. Only students awarded certificates of excellence for research presentations at an annual PSA meeting can compete for this award. The winner receives a plaque and a $500 check.

“We encourage poultry science students to push the traditional boundaries as they tackle today’s most challenging issues in the industry,” said Dr. Ted Sefton, poultry director, Alltech Guelph. “Through the Alltech Student Manuscript Award, we recognize young leaders in scientific innovation for not only pursuing new technologies and discoveries in the lab but also for their commitment to publishing and sharing the work within the poultry sector.”

Also at this year’s PSA meeting, Alltech presented eight abstracts, highlighting the company’s latest breakthroughs in poultry nutrition:

  • Effects of enzyme supplementation on fat pad and nutrient digestibility of first-cycle laying hens fed various concentrations of dietary energy E. Gareis*1, P. Rigolin2, T. E. Sefton2, and M. E. Persia3 1Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 2Alltech, Nicholasville, KY, 3Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA
     
  • Modulating coccidiosis and performance with dietary supplementation strategies or salinomycin fed to coccidia vaccinated broiler chickens G. Mathis*1, B. Lumpkins1, W. D. King2, and T. Sefton2 1Southern Poultry Research, Inc., Athens, GA, 2Alltech, Nicholasville, KY
     
  • Evaluation of inorganic (sulfates) and chelated trace minerals zinc, copper, manganese, and iron in low levels for broiler R. A. Vieira*2, R. D. Malheiros1, L. F. T. Albino2, M. I. Hannas2, R. Crivellari1, L. L. Borges1, and P. R. Ferket1 1Prestage Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2Department of Zootecny, UFV, Viçosa, MG, Brazil
     
  • Effects of dietary supplementation of Allzyme SSF on the performance of broiler chicks fed different types of diet T. Ao*, K. McKinney, L. M. Macalintal, M. A. Paul, A. J. Pescatore, A. H. Cantor, M. J. Ford, and K. A. Dawson Alltech-University of Kentucky Nutrition Research Alliance, Lexington, KY
     
  • Effects of dietary microalgae and time to initial feeding on growth performance and humoral immune response of broiler chicks L. M. Macalintal*, T. Ao, A. J. Pescatore, A. H. Cantor, M. J. Ford, and K. A. Dawson Alltech-University of Kentucky Nutrition Research Alliance, Lexington, KY
     
  • Effects of Programmed Nutrition (PN) strategy and post-hatch delayed feeding on the early growth performance of broiler chicks M. A. Paul*, A. J. Pescatore, T. Ao, M. J. Ford, A. H. Cantor, R. J. Lakarosky, J. D. Hawkins, W. D. King, and K. A. Dawson Alltech-University of Kentucky Nutrition Research Alliance, Lexington, KY
     
  • Effects of early imprinting and replacing inorganic Zn with different levels of Zn proteinate in broiler diets on growth performance and tissue zinc status of broiler chicks S. Mwangi*1, T. Ao2, J. Timmons1, M. Paul2, L. Macalintal2, A. Pescatore2, A. Cantor2, and M. Ford2 1University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD, 2Alltech-University of Kentucky Nutrition Research Alliance, Lexington, KY
     
  • Effects of dietary antioxidants on broiler breeder egg production, egg traits, embryo development, chick quality, and early broiler growth traits R. A. Renema*1, A. Pishnamazi1, R. Samuel2, and A. E. Sefton3 1University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, 2Alltech, Nicholasville, KY, 3Alltech, Guelph, ON, Canada

Making Quality Hay When the Sun Doesn’t Shine

Dry matter losses increase as large alfalfa-grass bales are placed under different storage moisture conditions. Buffered propionic acid is one way to combat mold and heating and to decrease nutritive and DM loss in hay.

[LEXINGTON, Ky.] – This season’s moderate to heavy rainfall from the Midwest and Ohio Valley to the central Appalachians and Carolinas has presented numerous challenges for farmers putting up hay. The added moisture has prevented plant maturity and cutting at proper time. Cut hay has been rained upon and the wet ground has exacerbated the drying time for hay ready to bale. The wet conditions can diminish hay quality through increased dry matter (DM) losses, reduced nutritive value, escalated heat and even increased mold content.

According to Dr. Max Hawkins, a nutritionist with Alltech’s Mycotoxin Management Team, hay will lose 5 to 6 percent DM until the hay reaches 40 percent moisture during the drying process.

“After this point, DM loss is often due to mechanical issues (raking and baling), with an average 15 percent loss mainly to leaves,” Hawkins said. “Crimping can greatly reduce DM waste by decreasing drying time, time in the field and leaf and respiration loss.”

Generally, 18 to 22 percent moisture is the upper limit for hay to be baled. Moisture levels above this window can result in increased DM loss, often from excessive heat and mold. Large round bales can retain heat longer than conventional bales and should be baled at lower percentage moisture (less than 18 percent).

“All forages above 15 percent moisture will undergo some degree of heating,” Hawkins said. “The amount of heating depends on the moisture level and mold development. Storage hay temperature is elevated by microorganisms and plant respiration.”

Temperatures can reach a level that will result in spontaneous combustion; however temperatures below combustion point can still cause mold growth and also significant losses in forage quality and quantity. Carbohydrates and protein can be reduced as carbohydrates are used as a food source by microbes, and protein is often bound in an unavailable form (browning).

Preservatives have been used as one method to cope with high moisture levels. Buffered propionic acid can also combat mold and heating. According to Hawkins, there is less nutritive and DM loss when buffered propionic acid is applied. Application rate is determined by percentage moisture level, and the manufacturers’ recommendations should be followed.

Hawkins also recommends utilizing a management program such as Alltech’s On-farm MIKO program to evaluate the heating and molding issues.

“Probing hay bales for temperature and thermal imaging can identify temperature issues due to heating and locate problem spots in the stored bales. The 37+TM mycotoxin analysis program can investigate samples taken to identify any issues with mycotoxins due to increased mold growth,” Hawkins said. “Together these programs can assist the producer to better manage the issues with hay that has been harvested and baled in less than ideal weather conditions.”

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