North America

Be Wary of Wheat Quality after Wet Weather

According to Dr. Max Hawkins, a nutritionist with Alltech’s Mycotoxin Management Team, there have been recent reports of wheat being rejected at grain terminals for DON levels ranging from five ppm to more than 10 ppm.

[LEXINGTON, Ky.] – This summer’s excessive rain has left the wheat harvest lagging behind and the crop in suboptimal condition, according to one grain management expert.

Dr. Max Hawkins, a nutritionist with Alltech’s Mycotoxin Management Team, said that the most common mycotoxin issue with wheat is Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by Fusarium graminareum mold. This is the same mold that produces Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), and the two are commonly associated in wheat. However, in some cases DON can still be present even if FHB is not spotted.

Fusarium graminareum prefers extended wet periods or relative humidity more than 90 percent with temperatures from 59 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit. The maps for June rainfall and temperature indicate these factors have been in play across a major portion of the Grain Belt.

“In the 2014 wheat crop, there are reports from across the U.S. of DON levels ranging from two parts per million (ppm) to 14 ppm. There are areas where the wheat has been relatively free of DON and bushel test weights have been excellent,” Hawkins said. “However, the areas contaminated with DON are increasing as rainfall and temperature play a more significant role. There have been recent reports of wheat being rejected at grain terminals for DON levels ranging from five ppm to more than 10 ppm.”

A standard alternative to corn in poultry and swine diets, wheat can be formulated into a diet on a lysine basis and provide similar nutritional value. Wheat can also be utilized to stretch a short corn supply or at certain times be a more economic replacement for corn. However, just as in corn, there can be a risk for mycotoxins.

“Wheat producers may have used fungicide to help prevent FHB but this requires proper timing and application rates to be more effective,” Hawkins said. “If there is variability in plant maturity across a field at application, this will result in fungicide being improperly timed for a percentage of the wheat crop. This will result in a percentage of the plants not being protected against FHB and at risk for DON formation.”

Since DON tends to be higher on light weight, damaged kernels or fines, Hawkins advises these tips for wheat growers:

  • Be proactive by increasing fan speed on combines to 1375 to 1475 rpm and increasing shutter openings to 3.5 inches.
  • When storing grain, it should be screened as it goes into storage and screened again when it is removed from storage.
  • Screening should not be used for livestock feed.
  • If the wheat grain contains DON, the straw from the crop will contain DON also so care must be used if the straw is destined for feeding or bedding.

“It is highly recommended to have the grain analyzed prior to feeding. Alltech’s 37+TM laboratory provides an in-depth analysis of 38 different mycotoxins and not only analyzes for DON but also for six different Type B Trichothecenes that can be formed by Fusarium graminareum,” Hawkins said. “The employment of a total mycotoxin management program that covers all areas from the field to the feeder will provide the greatest amount of information and the safest feed possible.”

PSA: Alltech Honors Auburn University Student, Showcases Latest Research

LEXINGTON, Ky.] – Kate Meloche, an Auburn University doctoral student, took home the Alltech Student Research Manuscript Award at the recent 2014 Poultry Science Association (PSA) meeting in Corpus Christi, Texas.

A native of Edina, Minnesota, Meloche received her bachelor of science in animal science with a minor in human nutrition from the University of Minnesota in 2011. During her undergraduate studies, Meloche worked as a research technician in the turkey nutrition research laboratory at the University of Minnesota and completed two consecutive summer course programs held by the Midwest Poultry Consortium Center of Excellence at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. After completing her undergraduate degree, she participated in a live production internship program with GNP Company in St. Cloud, Minnesota.

Meloche completed her master’s degree at Auburn University under the advisement of William A. Dozier, III. The focus of her work was the development and validation of prediction equations for the apparent metabolizable energy of distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks. Currently, Meloche is pursuing a doctorate at Auburn under the continued guidance of Dozier, where she is investigating the effect of nutrition and management strategies on the development of breast meat quality defects in broiler chickens.

The Alltech Student Research Manuscript Award is presented each year at the PSA conference and is bestowed upon a student for his or her presentation and publication as senior author of an outstanding research manuscript in Poultry Science or The Journal of Applied Poultry Research. Only students awarded certificates of excellence for research presentations at an annual PSA meeting can compete for this award. The winner receives a plaque and a $500 check.

“We encourage poultry science students to push the traditional boundaries as they tackle today’s most challenging issues in the industry,” said Dr. Ted Sefton, poultry director, Alltech Guelph. “Through the Alltech Student Manuscript Award, we recognize young leaders in scientific innovation for not only pursuing new technologies and discoveries in the lab but also for their commitment to publishing and sharing the work within the poultry sector.”

Also at this year’s PSA meeting, Alltech presented eight abstracts, highlighting the company’s latest breakthroughs in poultry nutrition:

  • Effects of enzyme supplementation on fat pad and nutrient digestibility of first-cycle laying hens fed various concentrations of dietary energy E. Gareis*1, P. Rigolin2, T. E. Sefton2, and M. E. Persia3 1Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 2Alltech, Nicholasville, KY, 3Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA
  • Modulating coccidiosis and performance with dietary supplementation strategies or salinomycin fed to coccidia vaccinated broiler chickens G. Mathis*1, B. Lumpkins1, W. D. King2, and T. Sefton2 1Southern Poultry Research, Inc., Athens, GA, 2Alltech, Nicholasville, KY
  • Evaluation of inorganic (sulfates) and chelated trace minerals zinc, copper, manganese, and iron in low levels for broiler R. A. Vieira*2, R. D. Malheiros1, L. F. T. Albino2, M. I. Hannas2, R. Crivellari1, L. L. Borges1, and P. R. Ferket1 1Prestage Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2Department of Zootecny, UFV, Viçosa, MG, Brazil
  • Effects of dietary supplementation of Allzyme SSF on the performance of broiler chicks fed different types of diet T. Ao*, K. McKinney, L. M. Macalintal, M. A. Paul, A. J. Pescatore, A. H. Cantor, M. J. Ford, and K. A. Dawson Alltech-University of Kentucky Nutrition Research Alliance, Lexington, KY
  • Effects of dietary microalgae and time to initial feeding on growth performance and humoral immune response of broiler chicks L. M. Macalintal*, T. Ao, A. J. Pescatore, A. H. Cantor, M. J. Ford, and K. A. Dawson Alltech-University of Kentucky Nutrition Research Alliance, Lexington, KY
  • Effects of Programmed Nutrition (PN) strategy and post-hatch delayed feeding on the early growth performance of broiler chicks M. A. Paul*, A. J. Pescatore, T. Ao, M. J. Ford, A. H. Cantor, R. J. Lakarosky, J. D. Hawkins, W. D. King, and K. A. Dawson Alltech-University of Kentucky Nutrition Research Alliance, Lexington, KY
  • Effects of early imprinting and replacing inorganic Zn with different levels of Zn proteinate in broiler diets on growth performance and tissue zinc status of broiler chicks S. Mwangi*1, T. Ao2, J. Timmons1, M. Paul2, L. Macalintal2, A. Pescatore2, A. Cantor2, and M. Ford2 1University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD, 2Alltech-University of Kentucky Nutrition Research Alliance, Lexington, KY
  • Effects of dietary antioxidants on broiler breeder egg production, egg traits, embryo development, chick quality, and early broiler growth traits R. A. Renema*1, A. Pishnamazi1, R. Samuel2, and A. E. Sefton3 1University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, 2Alltech, Nicholasville, KY, 3Alltech, Guelph, ON, Canada

Making Quality Hay When the Sun Doesn’t Shine

Dry matter losses increase as large alfalfa-grass bales are placed under different storage moisture conditions. Buffered propionic acid is one way to combat mold and heating and to decrease nutritive and DM loss in hay.

[LEXINGTON, Ky.] – This season’s moderate to heavy rainfall from the Midwest and Ohio Valley to the central Appalachians and Carolinas has presented numerous challenges for farmers putting up hay. The added moisture has prevented plant maturity and cutting at proper time. Cut hay has been rained upon and the wet ground has exacerbated the drying time for hay ready to bale. The wet conditions can diminish hay quality through increased dry matter (DM) losses, reduced nutritive value, escalated heat and even increased mold content.

According to Dr. Max Hawkins, a nutritionist with Alltech’s Mycotoxin Management Team, hay will lose 5 to 6 percent DM until the hay reaches 40 percent moisture during the drying process.

“After this point, DM loss is often due to mechanical issues (raking and baling), with an average 15 percent loss mainly to leaves,” Hawkins said. “Crimping can greatly reduce DM waste by decreasing drying time, time in the field and leaf and respiration loss.”

Generally, 18 to 22 percent moisture is the upper limit for hay to be baled. Moisture levels above this window can result in increased DM loss, often from excessive heat and mold. Large round bales can retain heat longer than conventional bales and should be baled at lower percentage moisture (less than 18 percent).

“All forages above 15 percent moisture will undergo some degree of heating,” Hawkins said. “The amount of heating depends on the moisture level and mold development. Storage hay temperature is elevated by microorganisms and plant respiration.”

Temperatures can reach a level that will result in spontaneous combustion; however temperatures below combustion point can still cause mold growth and also significant losses in forage quality and quantity. Carbohydrates and protein can be reduced as carbohydrates are used as a food source by microbes, and protein is often bound in an unavailable form (browning).

Preservatives have been used as one method to cope with high moisture levels. Buffered propionic acid can also combat mold and heating. According to Hawkins, there is less nutritive and DM loss when buffered propionic acid is applied. Application rate is determined by percentage moisture level, and the manufacturers’ recommendations should be followed.

Hawkins also recommends utilizing a management program such as Alltech’s On-farm MIKO program to evaluate the heating and molding issues.

“Probing hay bales for temperature and thermal imaging can identify temperature issues due to heating and locate problem spots in the stored bales. The 37+TM mycotoxin analysis program can investigate samples taken to identify any issues with mycotoxins due to increased mold growth,” Hawkins said. “Together these programs can assist the producer to better manage the issues with hay that has been harvested and baled in less than ideal weather conditions.”

Alltech Demonstrates Primacy in Science at 2014 JAM with Presidential Pick

[LEXINGTON, Ky.] – Global animal health and nutrition leader Alltech will be well represented at the joint annual meeting (JAM) of the American Dairy Science Association (ADSA), the American Society of Animal Science (ASAS), and the Canadian Society of Animal Science (CSAS) in Kansas City, Missouri, July 20–24. In addition to presenting a dozen abstracts of the company’s latest research, Alltech was also invited to showcase a poster presentation in the prestigious Presidential Picks.

Alltech and University of Kentucky Nutrition Research Alliance poster, “Polymers molecularly imprinted with ergotamine: recognition properties to template and related alkaloids,” by M. B. Kudupoje, E. S. Vanzant, A. Yiannikouris, K. A. Dawson, and K. R. McLeod was selected for this year’s Presidential Picks, one of the highest honors for JAM poster presenters. The posters are chosen by the ASAS past president, president and president-elect. Of the more than 1,200 papers submitted this year, only 36 were selected for this esteemed distinction.

“Innovation and entrepreneurship fuel our scientific research and this year was no exception to the quality data we obtained,” said Dr. Karl Dawson, vice president and chief scientific officer at Alltech. “Alltech has successfully partnered with top academic institutions throughout the world to research long-term solutions to the key issues facing our industry and we look forward to sharing this information at JAM.”

Research posters to be presented at this year’s meeting:

  • Nutrient utilization and metabolism by lactating dairy cows fed high-forage diets with protein supplements  K. Neal*1, J.S. Eun1, A.J. Young1, and K. Mjoun1Utah State University, Logan, 2Alltech, Brookings, SD
  • Effects of slow-release urea, rumen-protected methionine, and histidine on performance of dairy cows fed metabolizable protein-deficient diets F. Giallongo*1, J. Oh1, T. Frederick1, H. Weeks1, A.N. Hristov1, H. Lapierre2, R.A. Patton3, A. Gehman4, and C. Parys5 1Department of Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 2Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada, 3Nittany Dairy Nutrition Inc., Mifflinburg, PA, 4Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY, 5Evonik Industries AG, Hanau, Germany
  • Effects of feeding slow release NPN and microbial fermentation extracts on lactation performance of high-producing dairy cows  F. Díaz-Royón*1, A.D. Garcia1, K.F. Kalscheur2, and K. Mjoun3 1Dairy Science Dep., South Dakota State University, Brookings, 2South Dakota State University, Brookings, 3Alltech, Brookings, SD
  • Evaluation of liver mitochondrial oxygenconsumption of lactating Holstein dairy cows supplemented with Cobalt, Copper, Manganese and Zinc in organic and inorganic forms G. Acetoze*1, J. Champagne2, J.J. Ramsey3, A.M. Gehman4, K.A. Dawson5, and H.A. Rossow6 1University of California–Davis, Tulare, 2VMTRC–UC Davis, Tulare, 3University of California–Davis, Davis, 4Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY, 5Center for Animal Nutrigenomics and Applied Animal Nutrition, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY, 6VMTRC, University of California, Tulare
  • Effect of inorganic or organic selenium supplementation during gestation and lactation on cow and pre-weaning calf performance C.R. Muegge*1, K.M. Brennan2, R.P. Lemenager1, and J.P. Schoonmaker1 1Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 2Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY
  • A snapshot of multi-toxin contamination in feed— Summary of 37+ Analysis results for 2012–13 Yiannikouris* Center for Animal Nutrigenomics and Applied Animal Nutrition, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY
  • Polymers molecularly imprinted with ergotamine: Recognition properties to template and related alkaloids M.B. Kudupoje*1, E.S. Vanzant2, A. Yiannikouris3, K.A. Dawson3, and K.R. McLeod2 1Alltech-University of Kentucky Nutrition Research Alliance, Lexington, 2University of Kentucky, Lexington, 3Center for Animal Nutrigenomics and Applied Animal Nutrition, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY
  • The effects of feeding an algae supplement on milk yield, milk components, and dry matter intake M.E. Weatherly*1, A.M. Gehman2, A.M. Lisembee2, J.D. Clark1, D.L. Ray1, and J.M. Bewley1 1University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY
  • Effects of a docosahexaenoic acid-rich algae supplement on plasma amino acid levels in healthy, mature horses after prolonged treatment with dexamethasone R.A. Williams1, K.L. Urschel2, R.E. Schaeffer1, and K.M. Brennan*1 1Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY, 2University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY
  • Evaluating the expression of microRNA miR-1 and miR-133 in the muscle of horses fed a docosahexaenoic acid-rich algae supplement after prolonged dexamethasone treatment M.L. Spry, A.C. Smith, D.E. Graugnard, R.E. Schaeffer, and K.M. Brennan* Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY
  • Evaluation of mineral excretion of lactating Holstein dairy cows supplemented with copper, manganese and zinc in organic and inorganic forms G. Acetoze*1, A.M. Gehman2, K.A. Dawson3 and H.A. Rossow4 1University of California- Davis, Tulare, 2Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY, 3Center for Animal Nutrigenomics and Applied Animal Nutrition, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY, 4VMTRC, University of California, Tulare, CA
  • Gene expression profiles in muscle of black Iberian pigs supplemented with organic selenium compared with sodium selenite in finishing diets D.E. Graugnard*, A.C. Smith, M.L. Spry, L.F. Spangler and K.M. Brennan Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY